Belalang / Grasshopper

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The grasshopper is an insect of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. To distinguish it from bush crickets or katydids, it is sometimes referred to as short-horned grasshoppers. Species that change colour and behaviour at high population densities are called locusts.

Characteristics

Grasshoppers have antennae that are almost always shorter than the body (sometimes filamentous), and short ovipositors. Those species that make easily heard noises usually do so by rubbing the hind femurs against the forewings or abdomen (stridulation), or by snapping the wings in flight. Tympana, if present, are on the sides of the first abdominal segment. The hind femora are typically long and strong, fitted for leaping. Generally they are winged, but hind wings are membranous while front wings (tegmina) are coriaceous and not fit for flight. Females are normally larger than males, with short ovipositors. Males have a single unpaired plate at the end of the abdomen. Females have two pairs of valves ( triangles) at the end of the abdomen used to dig in sand when egg laying.

They are easily confused with the other sub-order of Orthoptera, Ensifera, but are different in many aspects, such as the number of segments in their antennae and structure of the ovipositor, as well as the location of the tympana and modes of sound production. Ensiferans have antennae with at least 20-24 segments, and caeliferans have fewer. In evolutionary terms, the split between the Caelifera and the Ensifera is no more recent than the Permo-Triassic boundary (Zeuner 1939).

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Belalang adalah serangga herbivora dari subordo Caelifera dalam ordo Orthoptera. Serangga ini memiliki antena yang lebih pendek dari tubuhnya dan juga memiliki ovipositor pendek. Suara yang ditimbulkan beberapa spesies belalang biasanya dihasilkan dengan menggosokkan femur belakangnya terhadap sayap depan atau abdomen (disebut stridulasi), atau kerana kepakan sayapnya sewaktu terbang. Femur belakangnya umumnya panjang dan kuat untuk melompat. Serangga ini umumnya bersayap, walaupun sayapnya kadangkala tidak dapat digunakan untuk terbang. Belalang betina umumnya berukuran lebih besar dari belalang jantan.

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